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Google Adwords Certified
  The page content needs to be optimised so that both search engine visitors and human
  visitors both deem it to be a useful website. Awhile back, effective optimisation entailed
  content with as many keywords as possible and while this once generated good search
  engine results it invariably put visitors off when they found the contents were irrelevant. It is
  also now frowned upon and penalised as being "spam" by all of the major search engines.
  Search engines use specific algorithms to determine the relevance of your website.
  The calculations from these algorithms determine where on the search engine result pages
  your website will appear. In order to keep the SEO•s (Search Engine Optimisation) from
  calculating aspects of their algorithms and ensuring that results are always up to date,
  major search engines regularly update their search algorithms. To optimize your website  
  successfully you need to understand how search engines work. To read more about the 
Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine click on the link.

  The result of some of the most recent algorithms updates has seen the shift move away
  from optimising websites for search-engines and instead the algorithms focus on promoting
  websites that give their searchers the best user experience. They're not only changing,
  they are evolving into more intelligent and accurate algorithms. SEO should still focus on
  optimizing their websites for specific keywords, but a rule of thumb should be to think of
  the end user experience as when building web pages.

  PageRank: Bringing Order to the Web

  The citation (link) graph of the web is an important resource that has largely gone unused in 
  existing web search engines. We have created maps containing as many as 518 million of
  these hyperlinks, a significant sample of the total. These maps allow rapid calculation of a
  web page's "PageRank", an objective measure of its citation importance that corresponds
  well with people's subjective idea of importance. Because of this correspondence,
  PageRank is an excellent way to prioritize the results of web keyword searches. For most
  popular subjects, a simple text matching search that is restricted to web page titles
  performs admirably when PageRank prioritizes the results. For the type of full text searches
  in the main Google system, PageRank also helps a great deal.

  Academic citation literature has been applied to the web, largely by counting citations or
  backlinks to a given page. This gives some approximation of a page's importance or quality.
  PageRank extends this idea by not counting links from all pages equally, and by
  normalizing by the number of links on a page. PageRank is defined as follows:

  We assume page A has pages T1...Tn which point to it (i.e., are citations). The parameter 
  d is a damping factor which can be set between 0 and 1. We usually set d to 0.85. There
  are more details about d in the next section. Also C(A) is defined as the number of links
  going out of page A. The PageRank of a page A is given as follows:

  PR(A) = (1-d) + d (PR(T1)/C(T1) + ... + PR(Tn)/C(Tn))

  Note that the PageRanks form a probability distribution over web pages, so the sum of all 
  web pages' PageRanks will be one.

  PageRank or PR(A) can be calculated using a simple iterative algorithm, and corresponds 
  to the principal eigenvector of the normalized link matrix of the web. Also, a PageRank for
  26 million web pages can be computed in a few hours on a medium size workstation.
  There are many other details which are beyond the scope of this paper.

  PageRank can be thought of as a model of user behavior. We assume there is a "random 
  surfer" who is given a web page at random and keeps clicking on links, never hitting "back"
  but eventually gets bored and starts on another random page. The probability that the
  random surfer visits a page is its PageRank. And, the d damping factor is the probability at
  each page the "random surfer" will get bored and request another random page. One
  important variation is to only add the damping factor d to a single page, or a group of pages.
  This allows for personalization and can make it nearly impossible to deliberately mislead the
  system in order to get a higher ranking.

  Another intuitive justification is that a page can have a high PageRank if there are many
  pages that point to it, or if there are some pages that point to it and have a high PageRank.
  Intuitively, pages that are well cited from many places around the web are worth looking at.
  Also, pages that have perhaps only one citation from something like the Yahoo! homepage
  are also generally worth looking at. If a page was not high quality, or was a broken link, it is
  quite likely that Yahoo's homepage would not link to it. PageRank handles both these
  cases and everything in between by recursively propagating weights through the link
  structure of the web.

  Keyword optimisation is now more heavily watched over. Those who include keywords too
  often will have their sites marked out as "spam". However, if your target keyword does not
  appear regularly enough, its ranking will not be as high as it could. The algorithms have
  become particularly smart and as well as the keywords you want to target you should
  include other relevant keywords.

  Using variations of a keyword is an excellent way to ensure that your site is viewed to be
  relevant. Variations are slight changes to your keyword. For example, variations of the
  keyword "car" include cars, vehicle, vehicles, etc.

    • Title-tag
    • Meta-tags
    • Header-tags (H1 tags)
    • Image-alt-tags
    • Formatting-tags

  Weight is also given to keywords that are included in certain sections of a page. These
  sections include the title-tag, meta-tags (only relevant to smaller search engines now),
  header-tags, image-alt-tags and formatting-tags (e.g. keywords in bold or italicised) of your
  text. With image-alt-tags and hyperlink title-tags it is important that you don't simply fill
  these with keywords because this will be ignored at best and at worst penalised.

  Never overemphasis keywords, again, this of the end user first, if is seems cluttered to a
  human, then the search engine algorithms will probably work that out mathematically.

  Your content should be made up of all of your keywords and other text. A total keyword
  density (all keywords) of around 15% to 20% is the maximum you should aim for and
  anything less than 5% is unlikely to yield good results. Density for a single keyword should
  be between 2% and 6%. 2% seems too low and 6% a little too high. If possible aim for
  approx 5% with the primary keyword and 2-3% with secondary and subsequent keywords.

  Text Formatting (e.g. strong, bold and underline): This may not offer much weight in
  algorithms, but generally if you bold the first instance of your keywords and the last
  instance of your primary keyword you should see some positive results.

  The closer you can get your keywords to the beginning of your page (top left) the better.
  Try to include your primary keyword within the first few sentences and also within the last

  If you are targeting "Property Investment" as a key phrase then do not split the words up if
  possible. Some effect is noticed if the words are split, but much more benefit is received by
  including the phrase as a whole.

  Include your keyword at least once in the Alt tag of any images. Ensure that the text is
  relevant to the image and gives some information.

  A better Google Page Rank (PR) will improve your search engine ranking, and thus deliver
  increased traffic to your site. Incoming links from other quality websites with PR4 and
  above should be your main target. If you don't have the Google Toolbar installed, you
  should definitely install it now - it will help you identify the websites and directories that will
  be the most beneficial to your own.
  We have highly qualified web developers and web optimize experts to assist you in getting 
  the most out of your website. If you really want to do some of the work yourself • Please
  refer to our 10 steps to optimize your website.